I will address each of your beliefs independently:
This belief is what is called Penal Substitution, which is reformed theology. Catholic Christians do not believe that God looked at His obedient son on the cross and saw wrath, but rather ultimate love.
There was no punctuation in the original text. Jesus could have said, “Today I tell you, that you will be with me in Paradise.”
The next problem with your belief is that after Jesus died, He went to the land of the abode (1 Pet. 3:19, Luke 16:22-26).
The Apostle’s Creed says Jesus "was crucified, died and was buried. He descended into hell and rose again.” The word hell here does not mean Hell as we think of Hell. It was a place or realm where holy souls were waiting for their Savior (CCC 633).
So the question I have is, did the thief got to Heaven without Jesus that day? Jesus says “with me,” so a literal interpretation would conclude that no, the thief did not go to Heaven without Jesus. Did the thief got with Jesus to Heaven prior to Jesus going to “the Bosom of Abraham”? Perhaps. Did Jesus take the thief with him to the land of the abode? Since God is outside of time, this could also be the case. When did Jesus go to Heaven? Before Jesus rose, after Jesus rose and appears to the Apostles? Both? Where was the thief during this time? With Jesus? Without Jesus? Things to ponder.
Thirdly, the Church teaches a martyr’s death. Some debate if the thief counts as martyrdom, since he was not being put to death for his faith in Christ. Pope Benedict said that the individual has had to have “freely and consciously, in a supreme act of love, witness[ed] to their faithfulness to Christ, to the gospel, and to the Church.” He further defines it as a voluntary enduring or tolerating of death on account of the Faith in Christ or another act of virtue in reference to God."
Amen! Catholics believe this. Christ indeed paid the price that we could not pay. Thank you Jesus! This is what Easter is all about. This is what every Mass is about. This is what we ought to be about.
When Jesus said, “It is finished” (John 19:30), we can look at it as Christ saying that His work on earth (fulfilling the earthly portion of His mission is done), but it was not the entire mission. St. Paul tells us in 1 Corinthians 15:14-20 that “if Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile” and salvation has not been fulfilled.
Dr. Scott Hahn wrote about “The Fourth Cup”. Jesus started His Passion with the Last Supper (celebrating the Passover). In short, Jesus only drinks from three cups (the third cup being the cup of blessing) and we know this because in Mark 14:26 it says “And when they had sung a hymn (referring to the Great Hallel, which follows the third cup) they went out to the Mount of Olives.” In verse 25, Jesus says, “Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the Kingdom of God.” Traditionally, fourth cup is the climactic finish of the Passover meal. In the agony in the garden, Jesus Prays to the Father three times to “let this cup pass from me” (Matthew 26). In Mark 15:23 it says, “And they offered Him wine mingled with myrrh; but he did not take it.” This was right before they nailed Jesus to the cross. But, later, as Jesus’ Passion nears its height, John 19:30 tells us, “When Jesus had received the sour wine (on a hyssop, which also points to Passover), he said, ‘It is finished;’ and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit.”
Dr. Hahn says, “It was the Passover that was now finished. More precisely, it was Jesus’ transformation of the Passover sacrifice of the Old Covenant into the Eucharistic sacrifice of the New Covenant.”
Jesus tells us in John 6, "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him.” It talks about this sacrifice (which Jesus offered once and for all, and is re-presented to us at every Sacred Liturgy) is “true food and true drink.”
Jesus is King, Priest, and paschal victim (the Lamb of God).
Protestants & Catholic Christians often talk past one another and strawman each other’s understanding when talking about topics like salvation & justification. Part of the confusion is because Christians (Protestant & Catholics) use different terminology to describe different aspects of salvation. What is “justification”? What is “salvation”? Is justification part of salvation? These are terms that mean different things to different Christian believers.
St. Paul says, in Romans 4:25, that Jesus “was raised for our justification.”
I have to go get my car repaired, but I will address the other points you maid tomorrow. God bless.